Nucleic acids are macromolecules and they are the most important components of DNA and RNA. They carry genetic information in them. In fact, DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides.
Nucleotides are phosphorylated nucleosides.
Nucleosides are made up of nitrogenous bases and sugar ribose.
Nitrogenous bases are 2 types: Purines and Pyrimidines. Purines are Adenine[A] and Guanine[G]. Pyrimidines are Cytosine[C], Thymine[T] and Uracil[U].
Sugars present in Nucleic acids:
β-D-Ribose a pentose is the sugar in nucleic acids especially RNA. In DNA sugar is β-D-Deoxy Ribose.
Nucleotides are phosphorylated nucleosides. Sugar ribose is phosphorylated. If ribose of the nucleoside Adenosine phosphorylated with one phosphate group then we call that nucleotide as adenosine monophosphate or AMP; If two phosphate groups attached to ribose then adenosine diphosphate or ADP and three phosphate groups we call adenosine triphosphate or ATP.
- Nucleic acids are essential components of DNA and RNA
- ATP a nucleotide is energy currency in all metabolic reactions
- GTP a nucleotide of guanine is required for protein synthesis
- UDP a nucleotide of uracil required for glycogenesis and bilirubin conjugation
- Coenzymes NAD and FAD contain adenine.
- They act as regulator or modulator molecules, for example, cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP
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