Normal pH is of blood is in the range of 7.35 to 7.45. On an average pH of 7.4 for arterial blood and venous blood, pH is slightly less when compared to arterial blood. If pH is less than this range then we call that status as acidosis and if more than the normal range such condition is called as alkalosis. In our body normal acid-base balance is maintained by three main regulatory mechanisms, namely, Buffer mechanism, respiratory regulation and renal regulation. Among buffers bicarbonate buffer [HCO3-/H2CO3] plays a major role as there is always alkali reserve to buffer acids. At plasma Ph 7.4 or physiological pH, the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid is 20:1.
A pathological condition where pH is less than the normal range. Acidosis may be due to either accumulation of excess acid in the body or due to loss of alkali from the body. There are 2 types of acidosis namely, respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis.
An abnormal condition where pH is more than the normal range. Alkalosis could be due to the accumulation of excess alkali in the body or loss of acid from the body. There are 2 types of alkalosis namely, respiratory alkalosis and metabolic alkalosis.